One of the most and absolute basic necessities include water. It is the most essential nutrient that is required for the body not only for its healthy development but also to make the body more disease and pathogen resistant. Water is mainly input to the body through drinking and it is therefore very crucial for us to maintain a standard or quality of drinking water so that it performs its functions in the body regularly and optimally.
In the past the quality and purity of water was tested merely by the test of naked eye, which if it passed, meaning if the water was transparent and had no visible particles of dust or unwanted materials, the water was deemed pure. But with the advent of microscopes and our knowledge of the materials and creatures that are way beyond human perception. It is from that time onwards that we paid more attention to the fact that actually the nutrients that we are intaking into our body needs some kind of examination to indeed find out the basic nature of our diseases rather than dealing with the pathogens using the same techniques till the damage has been done and unfortunately irreversible.
All of the processes or techniques mentioned below are not the only techniques, the techniques change and adapt to the different compositions of water and are in continuous evolution according to different areas and its needs. The Mobile applications developement company US says The main goal or objective of the whole cleaning and purifying process remains same that is to make water drinkable to everyone by removing the contaminants in it, both visible and invisible to the naked eye. As we progress in the levels of purifying techniques and cleaning processes of water costing of the processing increases simultaneously creating an inherent difference between the cost of normal tap water and so called ‘bottled water’.
The first method to purify water adopted by everyone is the fact of test of the eye. That is to detect any anomaly in the water just using the human eye and then derive techniques to remove it from the fluid. One of the techniques that is used to remove the particles is the act of actually pouring out water out from the impurity if it is a large one. If the impurity is a collection of smaller particles then dedicated filter paper are available in the market. The filter paper behaves like a sieve and has small pores in it. The pores are large enough to let water molecules pass through but small enough to stop the small chunks of dirt or unwanted materials, eventually purifying water at least to the naked eye. This method is also done prior to all the methods for a very simple reason, as most of the cleaning processes are done using heavy duty machines and expensive equipment, we do not want large, chunkier particles to clog in the pipelines and delicate parts of the machines, causing the machines either to degrade over time as well not operate properly causing problems for the machines and its workers.
Some of the techniques involved in the purification of water are as following. One of the basic water purifying technique that exists in every house hold is boiling the water. Boiling of water has been around from ages as it naturally makes sense and also satisfies the conscience of the common man when he or she practically sees the denaturation of other molecules in the presence of heat. It is even the safest and the cheapest method of purifying water as does not involve any external material whether filtering or soluble and requires only a heat source that is abundant in most households. The heat from the external source heats up the molecules in the water including its, so all of the parasites and germs that are usually not adaptable to extremely high temperatures, their structures breakdown and denature and the consumer is left with apparently clean water to drink.
One other step in the purification of water is the fact of removing metallic ions or metal particles from water. The metallic ions are soluble in water and are very hard to remove from water molecules. The fact that they are metallic particles also give them the advantage of withstanding heat and extreme temperatures for longer durations as they could go through the boiling process unphased. These are removed using a process named as Ion Exchange. In this process a large tank is utilized which is filled with a special negatively charged ion paste that the water is poured into. When the water comes into contact with that paste the metallic ion which are positively charged get attracted more to the negative ions and as a result leave the water, intern purifying it. The tank itself then requires maintenance and cleaning after set intervals so that the concentration of ions is not increased to a point that actual reversal of the process starts happening, which will do us no good at all. The maintenance process involves flooding the paste with a very saturated saline solution that extracts away all the metallic particles accumulated from the impure water. The process is very crucial as it removes the heavy metallic particles that are responsible of deposition in pipes, it removes lead and calcium, two of the metals that have been proved to have very detrimental effects on the general health of any person.
Once the water is passed through the process of ion exchange, removing all the metallic particles, it is passed through the activated carbon towers. The carbon towers are responsible for carbon filtration using the process of adsorption. This process is basically the removal of chlorine from the water molecules. These might also remove any pesticides, weeds, and other organic compounds that might have washed in the mainstream water supply such as rivers or lakes due to them being in close proximity of agricultural lands. Many plants keep multiple carbon towers in series rather than in parallel, which although reduces time efficiency but gets a higher degree of purification as the water effectively flows twice, getting more time for the process of adsorption to take place so that more and more contaminants are removed. The towers as with the above-mentioned process do require a great deal of maintenance. The towers if not maintained properly will not only cause a degradation only in their function but at some point, will start doing the opposite job, which is to contaminate the water.
The next step is a very important phase for the removal of the leftover microbials. This is the Ultraviolet sterilization phase. The water is passed through a special chamber in which UV light is focused on the water molecules so the UV light acts as a sterilizing agent and kills off the microbials and pathogens left in the water. The wavelength of the photons emitted from the UV rays is such that it penetrates deep into the pathogens structures and damages them from the inside out causing them instant fatality’s microbials are captured and killed, removed using the reverse osmosis process